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September 29, 2014 Categories: Core Java Basics. No Comments on Java variables

In this article you are going to learn about Java variables which are the fundamental units of storage for data in a Java program. You will also learn about creating or declaring variables, initializing variables and using variables in Java programs and different types of variables.


Java variables


Variable Definition


A variable is a named location in memory (RAM) to store data.


It is common in programs to store data and process the data to get the required outcome. If the data is predetermined (Case 1), for example, you want to add 2 and 3. Here, you know what to add. But what if the data will be read at runtime (Case 2) or someone else will give the data for your program. You can’t predict that data.


For Case 2, you have to use variables for storing the data in memory and then process it to get the output.


Java program for Case 1 will be as shown below:



In the above program you must enclose 2+3 in brackets. Otherwise instead of 5, which is the expected output, you will get 23 (2 and 3 will be treated as strings and gets concatenated with each other).


Before looking at the program for Case 2, let’s learn how to declare variables and use them.


Creating or declaring variables in Java


A variable can be created or declared in Java by using the below syntax:


datatype  variable_name;

variable_name can be any valid identifier in Java. Before using any variable in a Java program, you have to declare it first as per the syntax given above. The datatype specifies the type of value you are going to store in the variable. More on Java data types in another article. For now, just think of it as the type of variable.


Example for declaring a variable in Java is shown below:


int  x;


In the above example, int is a Java’s primitive data type and x is the name of the variable.


Initializing variables in Java


After declaring variables, we can initialize them as shown below:


variable_name = value;


So, we can initialize the variable x as shown below:


x = 10;


Remember that x has been declared as an integer. So, we can store integer values in x. For initializing a variable, we use the assignment (=) operator. We can combine variable declaration and initialization into a single line as shown below:


int  x = 10;


Initializing variables with literal values like 10, 2.5, etc… is known as static initialization. We can also assign an expression to a variable as shown below:


int a = 10;
int b = 20;
int c = a+b;


The expression a+b will be evaluated at runtime (execution of the program) and then it will be assigned to the variable c. This type of initialization is know as dynamic initialization.


We can declare multiple variables of the same type as shown below:


int  x, y, z;


Java program for Case 2 shown below will give you an example of how to use variables in Java:



In the above program Scanner is a utility class available in java.util package to read data from various sources like standard input, files etc… To read input from console (standard input) we provide as a parameter to the Scanner’s constructor.


nextInt() method available in the Scanner class returns the input entered by the user as an integer. The variables x and y are dynamically initialized. Output of the above program is:


Enter value of x:
Enter value of y:
Sum of x and y is: 30


Types of variables


Based on the location where the variable is declared and how it is declared, variables in Java are divided into three types. They are:

  • Instance variables
  • Class variables
  • Local variables


Instance Variables: A variable which is declared inside a class and outside all the methods, constructors and blocks is known as an instance variable.


Class Variables: A variable which is declared inside a class and outside all the methods, constructors, blocks and is marked as static is known as a class variable. More on static keyword in another article.


Local Variables: Any variable which is declared inside a class and inside a block, method or a constructor is known as a local variable.


Following Java example program demonstrates all the three kinds of variables:



In the above program and y are instance variables, result is a class variablea, b, sum and args are local variables.


One important point to remember is, every object maintains its own copy of each instance variable and a shared copy of each class variable.


Questions related to variables:


1. What is difference between instantiation and initialization?

A: Instantiation refers to creating an object for the class and initialization refers to assigning some value to a variable.

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